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The Origin of the Second Amendment

A Documentary History of the Bill of Rights

Second Edition
Edited by David E. Young


Table of Contents


Preface
xiv
Editorial Methodxvi
Sources and Short Title Listxvii
Chronologyxx
Introductionxxiii

Documents Section
1
Federal Convention---Summer, 17872
Federal Convention---August 18, 17872
Federal Convention---August 20, 17876
Federal Convention---August 21, 17877
Federal Convention---August 23, 17877
Foreign Spectator---September 11, 178711
Federal Convention---September 12, 178711
Federal Convention---September 14, 178712
Federal Convention---September 15, 178713
Federal Convention (proposed U. S. Constitution)---September 17, 178715
Foreign Spectator---September 21, 178726
Confederation Congress---September 27, 178727
William Pierce (New York)---September 28, 178728
James Madison (New York)---September 30, 178729
Seceding Pennsylvania Assemblymen---October 2, 178730
Richard Henry Lee (New York)---October 2, 178731
Richard Henry Lee (New York)---October 5, 178731
Centinel I---October 5, 178733
Philadelphia Independent Gazetteer---October 6, 178734
George Mason---October 7, 178734
Governor Edmund Randolph (Richmond)---October 10, 178735
Foederal Constitution---October 10, 178737
A Citizen of America {Noah Webster}---October 10, 178738
A Citizen of Pennsylvania---October 12, 178741
An Old Whig I---October 12, 178743
Richard Henry Lee---October 16, 178744
Impartial---October 16, 178745
One of the People---October 17, 178745
A Democratic Federalist---October 17, 178745
An Old Whig II---October 17, 178748
Elbridge Gerry (New York)---October 18, 178751
An Old Whig III---October 20, 178751
Louis Guillaume Otto (New York)---October 20, 178754
An American Citizen IV {Tench Coxe}---October 21, 178754
Louis Guillaume Otto---October 23, 178756
Essay on Federal Sentiments---October 23, 178757
A Citizen---October 24, 178757
Centinel II---October 24, 178758
New Haven Connecticut Journal---October 24, 178761
Virginia House of Delegates---October 25, 178762
An Old Constitutionalist---October 26, 178764
A Confederationalist---October 27, 178764
An Old Whig IV---October 27, 178766
M.C.---October 27, 178768
John De Witt II---October 27, 178769
George Lee Turberville (Charleston)---October 28, 178771
Arthur Lee (New York)---October 29, 178771
Richmond Virginia Independent Chronicle---October 31, 178772
Philadelphia Freeman's Journal---October 31, 178773
New Haven Connecticut Journal---October 31, 178774
Agricola---November 1, 178775
An Old Whig V---November 1, 178775
Cincinnatus I---November 1, 178777
Brutus II---November 1, 178777
Timoleon---November 1, 178783
George Turner (Philadelphia)---November 6, 178783
Argus---November 8, 178784
A Citizen of Philadelphia {Pelatiah Webster}---November 8, 178785
Centinel III---November 8, 178785
Hugh Williamson---November 8, 178786
Cincinnatus II---November 8, 178787
Federal Farmer---November [8], 178789
The Monitor---November 9, 178797
Uncus---November 9, 178797
Vox Populi---November 9, 178798
Plain Truth---November 10, 178799
R.S.---November 10, 1787101
William Grayson (New York)---November 10, 1787101
John Adams (London)---November 10, 1787101
James White (New York)---November 13, 1787102
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---November 13, 1787102
One of the Late Army---November 14, 1787103
A Georgian---November 15, 1787103
Brutus III---November 15, 1787104
Cincinnatus III---November 15, 1787104
Publius {Alexander Hamilton}---November 20, 1787105
Philadelphia Freeman's Journal---November 21, 1787107
Cincinnatus IV---November 22, 1787107
A Citizen---November 24, 1787108
Preston, Connecticut---November 26, 1787109
Pennsylvania Convention---November 26, 1787110
Pennsylvania Convention---November 28, 1787112
An Old Whig VII---November 28, 1787118
A Federal Republican---November 28, 1787119
Brutus IV---November 29, 1787122
Agrippa III---November 30, 1787123
Pennsylvania Convention---November 30, 1787123
One of the Common People---December 3, 1787127
John De Witt V---December 3, 1787129
Pennsylvania Convention---December 4, 1787135
Publius {Alexander Hamilton}---December 4, 1787136
Cumberland County Petition---December 5, 1787137
Philadelphiensis III---December 5, 1787138
A True Friend---December 6, 1787139
Brutus---December 6, 1787144
Philanthropos---December 6, 1787145
Pennsylvania Convention---December 6, 1787145
"Z"---December 6, 1787146
James Madison (New York)---December 9, 1787147
A Landholder VI {Oliver Ellsworth}---December 10, 1787147
George Lee Turberville (Richmond)---December 11, 1787148
Thomas Johnson (Annapolis)---December 11, 1787149
One of the People---December 11, 1787149
Uriah Forrest (London)---December 11, 1787149
Pennsylvania Convention---December 12, 1787150
A Countryman---December 15, 1787153
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---December 15, 1787154
Pennsylvania Minority---December 18, 1787154
Philadelphiensis V---December 19, 1787176
Jacob Trusty---December 19, 1787176
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---December 20, 1787177
Robert Yates and John Lansing, Jr.---December 21, 1787177
Charles Nisbet (Carlisle)---December 25, 1787178
Cassius XI---December 25, 1787178
Philadelphiensis VI---December 26, 1787179
Publius {Alexander Hamilton}---December 26, 1787182
An American {Tench Coxe}---December 28, 1787185
America {Noah Webster}---December 31, 1787186
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---December 31, 1787186
George Washington---January 1, 1788187
Marquis de Lafayette (Paris)---January 1, 1788187
An Old Soldier---January 4, 1788188
Samuel Osgood (New York)---January 5, 1788188
The Republican---January 7, 1788188
Centinel IX---January 8, 1788191
Indignatus---January 8, 1788192
Thomas B. Wait (Portland, Maine)---January 8, 1788193
Pennsylvania Carlisle Gazette---January 9, 1788194
Philadelphia Freeman's Journal---January 9, 1788195
Publius {Alexander Hamilton}---January 9, 1788195
Trusty---January 10, 1788200
Supreme Executive Council---January 10, 1788201
Samuel---January 10, 1788202
An Impartial Citizen--- January 10, 1788203
A Farmer---January 11, 1788204
Charles Johnson (Strawberry Hill, North Carolina)---January 14, 1788207
Agrippa XIII---January 14, 1788207
Nathaniel Barrell (Boston)---January 15, 1788208
The State Soldier I---January 16, 1788209
Philanthropos {Tench Coxe}---January 16, 1788210
Philadelphia Freeman's Journal---January 16, 1788210
Philadelphia Freeman's Journal---January 16, 1788211
South Carolina Legislature---January 18, 1788215
An Independent Freeholder---January 18, 1788217
Luther Martin---January 18, 1788219
An Old Militia Officer of 1776---January 18, 1788221
Agrippa XVII---January 21, 1788222
Massachusetts Convention---January 21, 1788224
A Countryman---January 22, 1788224
Helvidius Priscus---January 22, 1788225
Philadelphia Freeman's Journal---January 23, 1788227
Philadelphiensis VIII---January 23, 1788227
Massachusetts Convention---January 23, 1788228
Massachusetts Convention---January 24, 1788230
William Russell (Aspenville)---January 25, 1788231
Publius {James Madison}---January 25, 1788231
The Yeomanry of Massachusetts---January 25, 1788232
John Wilkes I---January 26, 1788233
Observator---January 26, 1788233
Publius {James Madison}---January 29, 1788234
Civis Rusticus---January 30, 1788235
Philadelphia Pennsylvania Gazette---January 30, 1788237
Franklin County Petition---January 30, 1788238
Aristides {Alexander Contee Hanson}---January 31, 1788239
A Watchman---February, 1788242
Columbian Patriot {Mercy Warren}---February, 1788243
Luther Martin---February 1, 1788246
Massachusetts Convention---February 1, 1788246
The Almanac-Maker---February 2, 1788248
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---February 2, 1788249
Massachusetts Convention---February 4, 1788249
Marquis de Lafayette (Paris)---February 4, 1788250
William Russell---February 5, 1788250
Philadelphia Pennsylvania Herald---February 5, 1788251
Massachusetts Convention---February 5, 1788251
Agrippa XVIII---February 5, 1788252
The State Soldier II---February 6, 1788253
An Old Whig VIII---February 6, 1788254
Philadelphiensis IX---February 6, 1788258
Massachusetts Convention---February 6, 1788260
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---February 6, 1788264
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---February 7, 1788264
Anti-Foederalist Nos. I & II---February 8, 1788264
Candour---February 12, 1788265
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---February 12, 1788265
A Farmer I---February 15, 1788266
George Nicholas (Charlottesville)---February 16, 1788270
William Fleming (Botetourt Co., Virginia)---February 19, 1788270
The Impartial Examiner---February 20, 1788271
A Pennsylvanian III {Tench Coxe}---February 20, 1788275
Deliberator---February 20, 1788277
Philadelphiensis X---February 20, 1788277
Alexander White---February 22, 1788280
Publius {Alexander Hamilton}---February 23, 1788281
Richard Henry Lee (Chantilly)---February 26, 1788283
The Impartial Examiner---February 27, 1788285
Philadelphia Independent Gazetteer---February 27, 1788286
Reverend John Leeland---February 28, 1788286
Philadelphia Independent Gazetteer---February 28, 1788287
Alexander White---February 29, 1788288
The Landholder X---February 29, 1788289
A Farmer II---February 29, 1788289
Hugh Henry Brackenridge---March 1, 1788291
The Impartial Examiner---March 5, 1788292
Philadelphia Freeman's Journal---March 5, 1788294
Winchester Virginia Gazette---March 7, 1788295
Philadelphiensis XI---March 8, 1788296
Philodemos---March 8, 1788296
One of the People---March 10, 1788297
Marcus---March 12, 1788297
James de Caledonia IV---March 12, 1788298
An Impartial Citizen---March 13, 1788299
Philadelphia Independent Gazetteer---March 14, 1788301
Sommers---March 15, 1788301
Luther Martin---March 18, 1788301
A Ploughman---March 19, 1788303
Connecticut Norwich Packet---March 20, 1788305
A Farmer IV---March 21, 1788305
Luther Martin---March 21, 1788305
The Political Club (Danville, Kentucky)---March 22, 1788307
A Farmer V---March 25, 1788308
Tullius---March 26, 1788309
Luther Martin---March 28, 1788310
J. T. Chase & J. F. Mercer---April, 1788312
A Plebian---April, 1788312
A Farmer VI---April 1, 1788328
Massachusetts Delegates---April 9, 1788328
Aristocrotis---April [15], 1788329
George Lee Turberville (Epping, Richmond County)---April 16, 1788335
A Farmer---April 23, 1788336
Philadelphia Pennsylvania Gazette---April 23, 1788336
Albany Antifederal Committee---April 26, 1788337
Philadelphia Independent Gazetteer---April 30, 1788339
John Francis Mercer---[May], 1788340
Federal Farmer---May, 1788342
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---May 2, 1788356
Maryland Minority---May 6, 1788356
Richard Henry Lee (Westmoreland County)---May 7, 1788361
South Carolina Convention---May 20, 1788363
George Mason---May 26, 1788365
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---May 27, 1788366
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---June 3, 1788367
Virginia Convention---June 5, 1788367
Virginia Convention---June 6, 1788374
Virginia Convention---June 7, 1788375
A Militiaman---June 7, 1788379
George Mason (Richmond)---June 9, 1788380
Virginia Convention---June 9, 1788380
Virginia Convention---June 10, 1788384
Virginia Convention---June 11, 1788385
Denatus---June 11, 1788387
George Mason---[June 11, 1788]388
Virginia Convention---June 12, 1788390
Sydney---June 13, 1788396
Cassandra---June 14, 1788397
A Freeman---June 14, 1788398
Virginia Convention---June 14, 1788399
Virginia Convention---June 16, 1788417
Virginia Convention---June 17, 1788441
Many---June 18, 1788443
Virginia Convention---June 19, 1788443
Robert Yates (Poughkeepsie)---June 21, 1788444
New Hampshire Convention---June 21, 1788445
James Madison (Richmond)---June 22, 1788447
Virginia Convention---June 24, 1788448
Virginia Convention---June 25, 1788451
A Delegate Who Has Catched Cold---June 25, 1788455
New York Journal---June 26, 1788456
Virginia Convention---June 27, 1788456
Philadelphia Independent Gazetteer---June 27, 1788463
New York Convention---June 27, 1788463
New York Convention---July 2, 1788464
Philadelphia Pennsylvania Gazette---July 2, 1788470
Cumberland County (Pennsylvania) Meeting July 3, 1788471
New York Convention---July 7, 1788473
Pennsylvania Carlisle Gazette---July 9, 1788475
New York Convention---July 10, 1788476
New York Convention---July 19, 1788476
Abraham Clark (New York)---July 23, 1788479
New York Convention---July 26, 1788480
New York Convention---July 28, 1788488
North Carolina Convention---July 28, 1788490
North Carolina Convention---July 29, 1788493
North Carolina Convention---July 30, 1788496
North Carolina Convention---July 31, 1788501
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---July 31, 1788502
North Carolina Convention---August 1, 1788503
Abraham G. Lansing (Albany)---August 3, 1788509
Tench Coxe (Philadelphia)---August 5, 1788510
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---August 12, 1788510
James Hanna (Newtown)---August 15, 1788511
Fayette County (Pennsylvania) Delegates---August 18, 1788512
Solon, jun.---August 23, 1788512
James Tilghman (Chestertown)---August 24, 1788514
Bucks County (Pennsylvania) Meeting
August 25, 1788514
Solon---August 28, 1788516
A Friend to Amendments---August 28, 1788517
A Republican---September 1, 1788517
William Shippen, Jr. (Philadelphia)---September 2, 1788518
Harrisburg Convention---September 6, 1788519
Boston Massachusetts Centinel---September 6, 1788524
A Federal Correspondent---September 11, 1788524
A Marylander---September 12, 1788525
Providence Gazette---September 13, 1788526
A Republican---September 17, 1788527
Civis---September 19, 1788527
DeWitt Clinton (New York)---September 19, 1788529
Pittsburgh Gazette---September 20, 1788530
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---September 20, 1788532
James Madison (New York)---September 21, 1788532
Abraham Yates, Jr. (New York)---September 22, 1788533
Governor Samuel Huntington (Connecticut)---September 23, 1788533
Federalism---September 26, 1788534
Richard Henry Lee (Chantilly)---October 15, 1788538
James Madison (New York)---October 17, 1788538
Charles Smith (Sudbury)---October 18, 1788542
James Madison (New York)---October 20, 1788542
Real Farmer---October 22, 1788543
Christian Farmer---October 23, 1788543
Theodorick Bland (Richmond)---October 23, 1788545
John Harris (Harrisburg)---October 28, 1788546
Virginia House of Delegates---October 29, 1788546
Charles Lee (Richmond)---October 29, 1788547
Honestus---October 30, 1788548
Virginia House of Delegates---October 31, 1788550
A Friend to the People---November 1, 1788550
James Madison (New York)---November 2, 1788551
Father Abraham---November 3, 1788553
Federal Republican Committee (New York)---November 4, 1788554
Foreign Spectator---November 7, 1788556
A Friend to Liberty and Union---November 7, 1788556
Annapolis Maryland Gazette---November 13, 1788559
Federal Republican Committee (New York)---November 13, 1788560
Virginia House of Delegates---November 14, 1788561
Centinel XXII---November 14, 1788566
Foreign Spectator---November 14, 1788567
Patrick Henry (Richmond)---November 15, 1788571
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---November 18, 1788572
Alfred---November 19, 1788572
Philadelphia Independent Gazetteer---November 22, 1788573
James Wilson---November 23, 1788574
William R. Davie---November 25, 1788575
David Humphreys (Mount Vernon)---November 29, 1788575
Jonathan Jackson (Newburyport)---December, 1788575
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---December 4, 1788579
James Madison (Philadelphia)---December 8, 1788579
Governor George Clinton---December 11, 1788580
A Federal Republican---December 11, 1788581
Belasarius---December 15, 1788583
George Mason (Gunston Hall)---December 18, 1788583
John Francis Mercer---December 20, 1788584
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---December 25, 1788585
Election Appeal for James Monroe---January, 1789586
Arthur Lee---January, 1789587
Aristides---January 1, 1789588
Adolphus---January 1, 1789591
James Madison (Orange)---January 2, 1789594
Samuel Sterett---January 2, 1789595
A Native of Baltimore---January 6, 1789596
Civis---January 6, 1789597
A True Federalist---January 7, 1789598
Thomas Rodney (Poplar Grove, Delaware)---January 10, 1789601
Elbridge Gerry (Cambridge)---January 12, 1789601
James Madison (Louisa)---January 13, 1789602
New York Assembly---January 20, 1789604
An Observer---January 22, 1789606
Elbridge Gerry---January 22, 1789607
Philadelphia Independent Gazetteer---January 23, 1789608
James Madison---January 27, 1789609
New York Election Law---January 27, 1789610
Spectator---January 27, 1789610
Abraham Clark---February 4, 1789611
New York Assembly---February 4, 1789612
New York Assembly---February 5, 1789624
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---February 9, 1789626
A. B.---February 13, 1789626
Baltimore Maryland Gazette---February 17, 1789627
A Republican---February 23, 1789627
Joshua Atherton (Amherst)---February 23, 1789629
Cassius---March 3, 1789630
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---March 4, 1789634
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---March 13, 1789634
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---March 15, 1789635
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---March 18, 1789637
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---March 23, 1789638
Paine Wingate (New York)---March 25, 1789639
H.G.---April 7, 1789639
James Madison (New York)---April 8, 1789640
James Madison (New York)---April 12, 1789640
Republican Committee---April 21, 1789641
President George Washington---April 30, 1789642
House of Representatives---May 4, 1789642
House of Representatives---May 5, 1789643
House of Representatives---May 6, 1789643
James Madison (New York)---May 27, 1789643
Richard Henry Lee (New York)---May 28, 1789644
President George Washington---[May 31, 1789]644
James Madison---June 8, 1789645
House of Representatives---June 8, 1789647
William R. Davie---June 10, 1789666
Fisher Ames (New York)---June 11, 1789667
Fisher Ames (New York)---June 12, 1789668
William Grayson (New York)---June 12, 1789668
James Madison (New York)---June 13, 1789669
James Madison (New York)---June 15, 1789669
A Pennsylvanian {Tench Coxe}---June 18, 1789670
Tench Coxe (Philadelphia)---June 18, 1789672
James Madison (New York)---June 21, 1789673
Joseph Jones (Richmond)---June 24, 1789673
James Madison (New York)---June 24, 1789673
A Pennsylvanian {Tench Coxe}---June 30, 1789674
Hugh Williamson (Baltimore)---July 2, 1789676
One of the People---July 2, 1789676
Governor and Council of North Carolina---July 9, 1789678
House of Representatives---July 21, 1789679
Fisher Ames (New York)---July 23, 1789679
House of Representatives---July 28, 1789680
George Mason (Gunston Hall)---July 31, 1789682
James Madison (New York)---August 2, 1789682
Pierce Butler (New York)---August 11, 1789683
Fisher Ames (New York)---August 12, 1789683
House of Representatives---August 13, 1789684
House of Representatives---August 14, 1789687
House of Representatives---August 15, 1789688
House of Representatives---August 17, 1789695
House of Representatives---August 18, 1789699
House of Representatives---August 19, 1789700
James Madison (New York)---August 19, 1789700
Philadelphia Independent Gazetteer---August 20, 1789701
House of Representatives---August 20, 1789702
James Madison (New York)---August 21, 1789704
James Madison (New York)---August 21, 1789704
Samuel Adams---August 22, 1789704
James Madison (New York)---August 24, 1789705
House of Representatives---August 24, 1789706
Samuel Adams---August 24, 1789708
Thomas Jefferson (Paris)---August 28, 1789709
United States Senate---September 4, 1789710
George Mason (Gunston Hall)---September 8, 1789710
Centinel, Revived, No. XXIX---September 9, 1789711
United States Senate---September 9, 1789712
James Madison (New York)---September 14, 1789712
Richard Henry Lee (New York)---September 14, 1789713
Archibald Maclaine (Wilmington, North Carolina)---September 17, 1789714
State Gazette of North Carolina---September 24, 1789714
United States Congress---September 26, 1789715
Richard Henry Lee (New York)---September 27, 1789717
William Grayson (New York)---September 29, 1789717
President George Washington (New York)---October 2, 1789718
New York Gazette of the United States---October 14, 1789719
James Madison (Orange)---November 20, 1789719
New Jersey Council---November 20, 1789720
Hardin Burnley (Richmond)---November 28, 1789720
Hardin Burnley (Richmond)---[December] 5, 1789721
James Madison (Orange)---December 5, 1789722
Virginia Senate---December 12, 1789722
John Dawson (Richmond)---December 17, 1789725
Maryland Senate---December 19, 1789726
Edward Carrington (Richmond)---December 20, 1789726
Governor Alexander Martin---December 22, 1789727
North Carolina General Assembly---December 22, 1789728
Philadelphia Independent Gazetteer---December 28, 1789728
Philadelphia Pennsylvania Packet---December 29, 1789728
Philadelphia Federal Gazette---January 5, 1790729
President George Washington---January 8, 1790729
South Carolina Senate---January 19, 1790730
New Hampshire Legislature---January 25, 1790730
Delaware Legislature---January 28, 1790730
Governor John Hancock---January 28, 1790731
New York Senate---February 24, 1790732
Pennsylvania General Assembly---March 10, 1790732
Governor Arthur Fenner (Rhode Island)---May 20, 1790732
Rhode Island Convention---May 29, 1790733
Richard Henry Lee (New York)---June 10, 1790739
Rhode Island General Assembly---June [15], 1790739
Thomas Jefferson (Philadelphia)---December 4, 1790740
A Farmer---January 29, 1791741
Vermont General Assembly---November 3, 1791742
Virginia Senate---December 15, 1791742
Thomas Jefferson---March 1, 1792742
Philadelphia Freeman's Journal---March 14, 1792743

Appendix A:
The State Bills of Rights and Related Constitutional Provisions747
Virginia Bill of Rights---June 12, 1776747
New Jersey Constitution---July 3, 1776749
Delaware Declaration of Rights---September 11, 1776750
Pennsylvania Constitution---September 28, 1776752
Maryland Declaration of Rights---November 11, 1776755
North Carolina Constitution---December 18, 1776761
Georgia Constitution---February 5, 1777763
New York Constitution---April 20, 1777764
Vermont Constitution---July 8, 1777765
South Carolina Constitution---March 19, 1778768
Massachusetts Constitution---October 25, 1780769
New Hampshire Bill of Rights---June 2, 1784775

Appendix B:
Bills of Rights Provisions Comparison Chart781

Appendix C:
Popular Support for the Constitution and a Bill of Rights784

Supplement
788

Index
803

For further info, contact deyoung1@chartermi.net
This page last updated: July 14, 2002

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